Step 1: Open the jar of honey and dilute it. Honey on its own is too concentrated for any microbes to survive. However, the moment it is diluted, it starts fermenting. I would recommend 1 part honey with three parts water (by volume). Remember honey is denser, so if we are adding by weight, then 500gms of honey per liter (or kg) of water is ideal.
Step 2: This is the most important part. Do remember that honey does not dissolve easily in water, so it needs to be constantly stirred in warm water (not boiling). Be careful about undissolved syrup sticking at the bottom and being caramelized. A mild constant stirring will help reduce any burnt flavors, heating in a water-bath will be the best.
Step 3: Take some lukewarm water, add honey and keep stirring. Bring it to a boil; to sterilize and then cool it.
Step 4: (Optional) Add about 0.1gm of Irish moss per liter. It will greatly accelerate the protein settlement and reduce the time for the haze to clear up. Otherwise, one should wait for about 6 months for the finished mead to clear up naturally.
Step 5: (Optional) In the boil, we could also add some organic rose petals (they will increase the aroma and add a faint pink color) or some mild spices like lemongrass, green cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, etc. Be careful about adding too much of spices that can overpower the delicate flavors of the honey. So, some moderation is expected. I find
Step 6: Cool down the honey water to about 25o -35oC before adding yeast (Tip: human body temperature is 37oC. So if the honey water feels warm, it is too hot). Keep the boiling vessel in the kitchen sink and fill it with ice to make an ice bath.
Step 7: Add some yeast (about 0.6-1gm of dry yeast per liter) as boiling would have killed all the wild microbes. Also, adding some yeast nutrients (0.4gm per liter) would help yeast to multiply faster as honey on its own does not have enough nutrients. Adding some lemon juice/ citric acid will create the acidic medium that will prevent the mold and other infection to develop. Make sure to hydrate the yeast for a good 15-30 minutes before adding to honey water. This will make these yeasty workers strong enough to make our beautiful beverage and can fend off any wild microbe invasion.
Step 8: Put it under an airlock in an airtight container and wait for 2 weeks for the fermentation to complete. A cool dry place away from sunlight is best. Some recipes call for 24 hours of primary fermentation without the airlock. This helps yeast to access the oxygen and creates a more vigorous fermentation. It normally takes 2 days for the bubbling to start when fermented between 15o -25oC.
Step 9: After the bubbling has stopped, please siphon/ strain the mead into a second vessel/ bottle for secondary fermentation. We also get rid of the yeast sediment in the process. Please wait for another month for the mead to clear to serve. Keeping in the refrigerator (cold crashing) will help clear the wine faster.